Parts of Speech

There are over 17 million words in English.  These words are divided into 8 classes or 8 categories according to their functions in sentences. Every word class or word category is called a part of speech. 

Parts of Speech:

What is a part of speech? 

A part of speech is a category of words that play similar role in sentence constructions. 

Why should we learn parts of speech?

Words are the building blocks of sentences. So, understanding how words function in the sentence should be the first step towards learning grammar. The study of parts of speech teaches you this.

8 Parts of Speech

Types of Parts of Speech:

  1. Noun
  2. Pronoun
  3. Adjective
  4. Verb
  5. Adverb
  6. Preposition
  7. Conjunction
  8. Interjection


Nouns:

What is a Noun? 

A noun is the name of a person, a place, an animal, a thing, or an idea. Nouns are the largest open word class 

Kitty plays cricket.
The police dispersed the crowd
Shakespeare is a great dramatist
Frailty, thy name is woman.
They tell us a tale about a tail.

Nouns are further divided into many sub-categories like proper nouns, common nouns, collective nouns, material nouns, abstract nouns, concrete nouns, occupation nouns, noun of multitude, verbal nouns, and so on. 

Pronouns:

What is a Pronoun? 

Pronouns are words which take the place of nouns. We use pronouns to avoid the boring repetation of nouns. 

She plays cricket.
Tell me the truth.
He fans himself.
We are proud of you.
This is no wrong. 

There are nine types of pronouns. They are personal pronouns, possessive pronouns, reflexive pronouns, imphatic pronouns, interrogative pronouns, relative pronouns, reciprocal pronouns, distributive pronouns, and indefinite pronouns.  

Adjectives:

What is an Adjective? 

An adjective is a word which describes a noun. Adjectives are one of the four major word classes in English. 

Kitty is a good cricketer.
She wears a red hat.
Ice is cold; fire is hot.
You are a nice man.
hungry man is an angry man.

There are many types of adjectives such as colour adjective, size adjective, shape adjective, adjective of physical condition, adjective of mental condition, proper adjective, pronominal adjective, possessive adjective, adjective of quality, adjective of quantity, adjective of number, openion adjective, etc. 

Verbs:

What is a Verb? 

A verb is a word that denote an action, or a state of being. Verbs are the second largest open word class in English.

Kitty plays cricket. 
They love ice-cream. 
Believe you can and you are halfway there.
Dream big and dare to fail.
You can if you think you can.

Verbs occupy a very part of a language. There are many types of verbs such as lexical verb, principal verb and auxiliary verb, finite and non-finite verb, transitive and intransitive, action and state verb, active and passive verb, modal and semi-modal verb, quasi-passive verb, factitive verb, cognate verb, etc.



Adverbs:

What is an Adverb? 

An adverb is a word which describes an action verb, an adjective or another adverb. Adverbs are also one of the four major word classes in English. 

Kitty plays cricket well
She is very skillful.
She bats wonderfully well
Do it Now!
Life is too short to waste. 

Adverbs are divided into several types. They are adverbs of time, adverbs of place, adverbs of frequency, adverbs of manner, etc


Prepositions:

What is a Preposition? 

A preposition is a word that links nouns or pronouns to the other words within a sentence. Prepositions are used before nouns or pronouns to show place, position, time, or method.

Kitty plays cricket with Linda. 
You receive from the world what you give to the world. 
In the middle of difficulty lies opportunity. 
Impossible is for the unwilling. 
Turn your wounds into wisdom.

There are many types of prepositions in English. They are simple prepositions, compound prepositions, phrase prepositions, prepositions of time, prepositions of place, prepositions of directions, etc.

Conjunctions:

What is a Conjunction? 

A conjunction is a word that joins words, phrases, or clauses.  

Kitty and Linda play cricket.
Though he is poor, he is happy.
Wait until I come back. 
Keep silent or go away.
If you can dream it, you can do it. 

There are mainly three types of conjunctions in English: co-ordinate conjunctions, sub-ordinate conjunctions and co-relative conjunctions. 

Interjections:
What is an Interjection? 

An interjection is a word which expresses some sudden feeling or emotion. An interjection could also be thought of as a short exclamation. 

Wow! Kity has got a six. 
Alas! He has failed again. 
Hurrah! We have won the game. 
Fie! You are a cheat.
Ouch! It hurts.

Interjections are not grammatically related to other words in the sentence.

Word Classes:

Open Word Class and Closed Word Class

Closed word classes are parts of speech that are consistent and do not have newer words introduced to them over time. These include pronounsconjunctionsdeterminers, and prepositions.

Open word classes are parts of speech that have newer words introduced to them over time. These include nouns, verbs, adjectives, interjections, and adverbs.

Quiz:

Online Test on Parts of Speech

Below is a 15 minute online test on parts of speech. Login to take the test. Answers wont be submitted unless you login

Select the correct answer

Q1. ‘He is friendly with me.’ Here friendly is a/an -----.
Noun
Pronoun
Adverb
Adjective
Q2. ‘The girl is like her mother.’ Here ‘like’ is a/an -----.
Preposition
Conjunction
Verb
Adjective
Q3. ‘Improve your hand writing.’ Here ‘Improve’ is a/an -----.
Intransitive verb
Transitive verb
Causative verb
Nonfinite verb
Q4. ‘The sun is shining bright.’ Here ‘bright’ is a/an -----.
Noun
Adjective
Adverb
Verb
Q5. ‘He is strong enough.’ Here ‘enough’ is a/an -----.
Preposition
Noun
Adjective
Adverb
Q6. You should improve your pronunciation. Here ‘pronunciation’ is a/an-----.
Verb
Adverb
Noun
Adjective
Q7. ‘He came before the time.’ Here ‘before’ is a/an-----.
Conjunction
Preposition
Adjective
Noun
Q8. ‘Study hard to improve yourself.’ Here ‘hard’ is a/an-----.
Adverb
Verb
Adjective
Noun
Q9. ‘He came from the above.’ Here ‘above’ is a/an-----.
Adjective
Noun
Preposition
Conjunction
Q10. ‘We went home yesterday.’ Here 'home' is a/an-----.
object
adverb
pronoun
noun
Q11. ‘Whose pen is this?’ Which parts speech is ‘whose’?
Adjective
Preposition
Adverb
Pronoun
Q12. ‘He got gold medal.’ Which parts of speech is ‘gold’?
Adverb
Noun
Adjective
Preposition
Q13. ‘He goes to school to learn.’ Here ‘to learn’ is a/an -----.
Noun
Adjective
Preposition
Adverb
Q14. A noun is a ----- of speech.
part
preposition
verb
noun
Q15. Smoke went into her eyes. Here ‘into’ is a/an-----.
Noun
Adjective
Preposition
Adverb