ADJECTIVES

Table of Contents:

Adjectives_Definition

An adjective is a word which modifies a noun or a pronoun. The word modify means describe. So, adjectives describe nouns or pronouns. The bold words in the following sentences are adjectives. 

  • Dogs are faithful animals.
  • black cat sat on a small mat.

What is an adjective?

You have known that an adjective is a describing word. For better understanding, we can see how the greatest grammarians have described adjective:

"The word adjective means adding."-J.C. Nasefield.

"An adjective is a word used to add something to the meaning of a noun."-Wren & Martin.

"An adjective is a word that describes a person or thing." -Oxford Dictionary

"An adjective is a word like greenhungryimpossible, which is used when we describe people, things, events, etc." -Michale Swan

"Adjective describes properties, qualities or states attributed to a noun or a pronoun."-Cambridge Grammar of English.

Why do you need to learn Adjective? 

Adjectives are one of the four largest major classes of words an the use of adjectives makes your witing or speech spicy and juicy. Moreover, you will be asked to identify adjectives in the sentence when you will sit for a competitive exam like varsity admission, civil service exam, etc.

How to Identify Adjectives in the Sentence? 

The forms of Adjectives will help you little to identify them. You need to learn where adjectives are used in the sentences. That is, you can identify adjectives by their position in the sentence. 

Adjectives_Position

Adjectives occupy three different positions in the sentence. They are: 

(i) Before the Noun 

We use Adjectives before the nouns they describe. Adjectives before used nouns are called prepositive adjectives, or Attributive Adjectives. Attributive adjectives can only modify nouns because we cannot use adjectives before pronouns. 

  • He is sitting in a dark room.
  • Today is a windy day.
  • They are two busy persons.
  • Some lazy boys are playing mobile games.

(ii) After Linking Verbs 

We use Adjectives after Linking Verbs. But they modify the nouns or pronouns that are before the verb. Adjectives after a Linking Verb are called Predicative Adjective. Predicative adjectives can modify both nouns and pronouns. 

  • The room is dark
  • The day is windy
  • Two persons are busy
  • Some boys are lazy. 

(iii) After the Noun  

We can use Adjectives immediately after the noun they modify. Adjectives used immediately after the noun are called Postpositive Adjective.

  • The Attorney general is a kind man. 
  • I’ll give it to someone special

Adjectives_Types

Adjectives describe colourshapesizephysical conditionmental conditionopinionquantity and number. Adjectives are named accordingly. Let us explore some of them.

1. Colour Adjectives

Colour Adjectives tell you about the colour of things. 

  • The sky is blue.  
  • Trees are green.  
  • Blood is red.  
  • Milk is white.

2. Shape Adjectives

Shape adjectives tell you about the shape of things.

  • My dining table is oval.
  • This room is rectangular.
  • Our classroom is square.
  • My office table is semicircular.

3. Size Adjectives

Size adjectives tell you about the size of things.

  • Kamal is tall.  
  • Mina is short.  
  • The egg is large.  
  • The dining room is small.

4. Adjectives of Physical Condition

Adjectives of physical condition tell you about the physical condition of people and animals.

  • He is strong.  
  • She is frail.  
  • My mother is ill.  
  • My grandmother is weak.

5. Adjectives of Mental Condition

Adjectives of mental condition tell you about the mental condition of people.

  • She is happy.  
  • He is unhappy.  
  • She is depressed.  
  • He is frustrated.

6. Opinion Adjectives

Opinion adjectives tell you about the quality of things.

  • Pudding is delicious.  
  • Your dress is gorgeous.  
  • The vase is beautiful.  
  • The food was excellent.
  • He is an honest man.
  • The foolish crow tried to sing.

7. Proper Adjectives

Proper Adjectives are formed from Proper Nouns. Proper adjectives begin with a capital letter. 

  • French town
  • American ship
  • Bangladeshi food
  • Indian restaurant

The derivation of proper adjectives from proper nouns is somewhat irregular. For instance, the spelling of the following proper nouns and proper adjectives can be compared.

Proper Noun
Proper Adjective
America
American
Canada
Canadian
Germany
German
Mexico
Mexican
George
Georgian
Victoria
Victorian

Many proper adjectives end with an or ian. However, other endings are also used, as indicated below.

Proper Noun
Proper Adjective
England
English
France
French
China
Chinese
Bangladesh
Bangladeshi

8. Adjectives of Quantity 

Adjectives of Quantity (or, Quantitative Adjectives) show how much of a thing is meant.

  • little water  
  • much sugar

Adjectives of Quantity answer the question: How much?  Adjectives of Quantity are used with Uncountable Nouns.

9. Adjectives of Number

Adjectives of Number show how many persons or things are meant, or in what order a person or thing stands.

  • five fingers  
  • first day

Adjectives of Number answer the question: How many?

10. Possessive Adjectives

Possessive Adjectives are his, her, its, my, our, their, and your.

  • my rice
  • their house   
  • his room
  • our friends

 It answers the question “Whose”. 

11. Demonstrative Adjectives

The demonstrative adjectives are that, this, these and  those.

  • this bag
  • that boy
  • these bags
  • those boys

A demonstrative adjective may look like a demonstrative pronoun, but it is used differently in the sentence:

  • That boy is clever. (Demonstrative Adjective)
  • That is a clever boy. (Demonstrative Pronoun)
  • These mangoes are sour. (Demonstrative Adjective)
  • These are mangoes. (Demonstrative Pronoun)

Remember: this and that are used with Singular Nouns; these and those with Plural Nouns.

12. Interrogative Adjective

What, which and whose are often used as Interrogative Adjectives.

  • What class are you in?
  • Whose book is this?
  • Which way shall we go?

An interrogative adjective may look like a interrogative pronoun, but it is used differently in the sentence:

Example:-

  • What movie do you want to see? (Interrogative Adjective
  • What do you want? (Interrogative  Pronoun) 

Select the correct answer

Q1. Adjectives are-----.
joining words
naming words
describing words
action words
Q2. Adjectives placed before nouns are called-----.
attributive adjectives
predicative adjectives
postpositive adjectives
proper adjectives
Q3. Adjectives have-----positions in the sentences.
2
3
4
5
Q4. Adjectives modify-----.
nouns
pronouns
nouns and pronouns
adverbs
Q5. This is his pen. What kind of adjective 'his' is----------.
Pronominal adjective
Numeral adjective
Quantitative adjective
Descriptive adjective
Q6. It was a very----------situation.
embarrass
embarrassed
embarrassing
embarrassment
Q7. 'She was found unhurt.' The word ‘unhurt’ is a/an----------.
noun
adjective
verb
adverb
Q8. Which one is an adjective?
Freedom
Cheerful
Attentively
Beautify
Q9. The colleagues remained happy with the corrupt boss even though I requested them to shun him. Here the word 'happy' is----------.
a noun
an adjective
an adverb
a conjunction
Q10. He is a man of few words. Here ‘few’ is a/an----------.
Descriptive Distributive Adjective
Demonstrative Adjective
Pronominal Adjective
Indefinite numeral Adjective
Q11. The UN envoy came to Bangladesh on ----------visit.
three day
three days
a three days
three day's
Q12. Choose the name of parts of speech of 'fertile'.
noun
pronoun
adverb
adjective
Q13. What is the adjective form of 'star'?
Stary
Starry
Asterisk
Starful
Q14. 'Fair Daffodils, we weep to see'. The word ‘fair’ is a/an----------.
verb
adverb
adjective
all
Q15. Which one of the following is a cardinal numeral adjective----------.
second
multiple
single
five