CONJUNCTIONS

And, but, or, as, since, because, etc. are Conjunctions. 

What is a Conjunction?

A conjunction is a word that joins words, phrases or sentences. Conjunctions express logical relations between words, phrases or sentences. 


 Types of Conjunctions 


(i) Co-ordinating Conjunctions: 

and, but, and or are the main coordinating conjunctions. 

And- He reads, and he writes. 

But- He reads, but he does not write. 

Or- Everyday he reads, or he writes.

 


Other coordinating conjunctions are: 

 nor

for

so

yet





A Co-ordinating Conjunction joins elements of same value:

(1) Joining pre-fixes with pre-fixes: You did well in pre and post-tests. 

(2) Joining words with words: She wears a red and blue skirt. 

(3) Joining phrases with phrases: I ate an egg and an apple

(4) Joining clauses with clauses: Speak more politely or I will kill you. 

(5) Joining sentences with sentences: I paid the bill in time. But I forgot to collect the receipt. 


Types of Co-ordinate Conjunctions:

Co-ordinating Conjunctions are of four kinds:

(1) Cumulative or Copulative [and family] 

 Cumulative conjunctions add one statement to another. 

 They played well, and won the match. 


(2) Adversative [but family]

 Adversative conjunctions express opposition or contrast between two statements. 

 They played well, but could not win the match.


(3) Disjunctive or Alternative [or family] 

 Alternative conjunctions express a choice between two alternatives. 

 She must weep, or she will die.


(4) Illative [for]  

Illative conjunctions express an inference. 

 Something certainly fell in: for I heard a splash.


(ii) Sub-ordinating Conjunctions:

Subordinating conjunctions are conjunctions that join an independent clause with a dependent clause. Subordinating conjunctions introduce noun clause, adjective clause and adverbial clause.

 When you sleep, you cannot see.

He is happy because he got a gift. 


Sub-ordinate conjunctions only join clauses. The clause introduced by the sub-ordinate conjunction is a sub-ordinate clause. A sub-ordinate clause is always depended on the other clause of the sentence. 


The most common subordinating conjunctions are: 

 after, although, as, as far as, as if, as long as, as soon as, as though, because, before, even if, even though, if, in order that, since, so, so that, than, that, though, unless, until, when, whenever, where, whereas, wherever, while 


Types of Sub-ordinate Conjunctions:

Subordinating Conjunctions may be classified according to their meaning. 


(1) Time

 The patient came round before the doctor arrived. 

Many things have happened since I saw you.




(2) Cause or Reason

 As he is honest, everybody loves him.

Everybody loves him because he is honest.




(3) Purpose

 Walk slowly lest you should fall down.

We eat so that we can live.

He works hard in order that he can prosper in life.


 


(4) Result or Consequence

 I’m so tired that I cannot walk.


(5) Condition

 If you read, you will learn. 

They will miss the train unless they hurry up.


 


(6) Concession

 He got a prize although he played badly. 

Though they were late, they were fully paid.


 


(7) Comparison

 A train runs faster than a bus [is]. 

You are older than I [am].



Certain words are used both as Prepositions and Conjunctions.

 Preposition: Wait here till night. 

Conjunction: Wait here till I return.


 


 Preposition: He has been absent since Friday. 

Conjunction: Many things have happened since he went.


 


 Preposition: He is rewarded for his honesty. 

Conjunction: He is rewarded, for he is honest.


 


 Preposition: Don’t run after the rain. 

Conjunction: Come here after the rain stops.


 


 Preposition: None but Mike is absent. 

Conjunction: All are present but Mike is absent.


 


 Preposition: He sat before me. 

Conjunction: He came here before the show started.


 


(iii) Co-relative conjunctions

Some Conjunction are used in pairs. They are called Correlative Conjunctions or Correlatives.

 either...or

not only...but (also)

neither...nor

both...and

whether...or

just as...so

the...the

as...as

as much...as

no sooner...than

rather...than

not...but rather





Important! 

When Conjunctions are used as Correlatives, each of the correlated words should be placed immediately before the words to be connected; as,

  •  He visited not only London, but also Wales.
  • (Not) -- He not only visited London, but also Wales.



Conjunctions ‘and’, ‘but’ and ‘or’ often make sentences more compact. 

 The man is poor but honest.

 

-is the compact form of- 

 The man is poor but he is honest.

 

And-

 Do or die.


-is the compact form of- 

 You do or you will die.


 


Relative pronouns and relative adverbs are also connecting words. They connect clauses to form complex sentences.

 This is the house where I live. (Relative Adverb)

People who live in glass house should not throw stones at others. (Relative Pronoun) 

 





Be Careful!

Conjunctions must be carefully distinguished from Prepositions, which are also connecting words.

 He was rewarded for his honesty. (Preposition) 

He was rewarded for he was honest. (Conjunction)



What is the difference? 

Relative Pronouns & Relative Adverb also join but they do more. Conjunctions merely join: They do no other work. Observe that a Preposition also joins two words, but it does more; it governs a noun or Pronoun. 


Compound Conjunctions

We use many compound expressions as Conjunctions; they are called Compound Conjunctions.

 as if

as through

as soon as

as well as

even if

inasmuch as

in order that

on condition that

provided that

so that

Select the correct answer

Q1. 'He is poor but honest.’ In this sentence which is a conjunction?
honest
but
he
poor
Q2. You can ask for help-----you need it.
whenever
unless
although
because
Q3. -----she reached the exam hall than the door closed.
As sooner as
As soon as
No sooner
No sooner had
Q4. Neither my brother-----my sister own a car.
nor
and
but
so
Q5. He-----music, but also sings songs.
only composes
not composes only
not only composes
composes not only
Q6. Which of the following connectors is used to express concession?
otherwise
therefore
though
because
Q7. -----she is blind, she paints very well.
Since
Because
Despite
Although
Q8. You have to take the full course of your antibiotics-----you feel better,-----, your illness will simply return.
although; so that
even if; otherwise
so that; or
unless; and
Q9. We need two hundred dollars-----this to pay for everything.
as well
beside
also
besides
Q10. I always take an umbrella-----it rains.
incase
incase of
if
unless
Q11. He could not win but learned a lot. Which part of speech is the word 'but'?
An adjective
An adverb
A verb
A conjunction
Q12. Fill in the blank: I was waiting for Usha-----she never came.
but
and
while
as
Q13. Special heat sensors on the front of the rattlesnake's head enable it-----to detect the presence of prey in the dark-----to strike its victim accurately.
in addition; due
whether; or
not only; but also
either; or
Q14. The poem 'Bidrohi' written by Kazi Nazrul Islam is as alive and-----today as it was hundred years ago.
appealed
appealing
appeal
the appeal
Q15. They've been living in that house-----they were children.
until
since
for
when