PREPOSITIONS

Prepositions are words or group of words used before a noun or pronoun to show place, position, time, or method. Preposition links nouns or pronouns to a sentence. 

The word Preposition means 'placed before'. Prepositions are used before a noun or pronoun.  

Prepositions are a closed class of words.  There are over 100 prepositions in English. 

Most common prepositions are:

 at, about, above, by, before, beside, for, from, of, on, over, onto, to, towards, through, up, with, without 

Kinds of Prepositions

(1) Simple Prepositions or One-word Prepositions: 

These prepositions are single-words. The most common prepositions are:

 after, against,  as,  at,  by,  despite,   down,   during,  except,  for, from,  in,   like,  near,  of,   off,   on,   opposite,   out,   over, past,  round,  since,  than,   through,  to,  towards,  under, up,  via,  with

(2) Compound Prepositions: 

These prepositions are formed by prefixing a Preposition to a Noun, an Adjective or an Adverb.

 about,  above,  across,  along,  amidst, among,  amongst,  around,  before,  behind, below,  beneath,  beside,  between,  beyond, inside,  outside,   into,  onto,  underneath, unlike,   until,   upon,  within,   without 

(3) Phrase Prepositions: 

These prepositions are formed of a group of words:

ahead of, apart from, as for, as well as, because of, due to, except for, in addition to, in front of, in place of, in spite of, inside of, instead of, near to, on account of, on top of, out of, outside of, owing to, such as, thanks to, up to 

Position of Preposition: 

Prepositions are used before a noun or pronoun. 

  • Look at the bird.
  • It’s sitting on the tree. 

The noun or pronoun after the preposition is called its object. Preposition along with its object is called prepositional phrase. 

Preposition stranding: 

Traditional grammatical rules say that we should not use a preposition at the end of a clause or sentence. However, we sometimes do separate a preposition from the words which follow it (its object). This is called preposition stranding. In the following cases, preposition is used after its object. 

Rule-1. 

The Preposition is often placed at the end when the object is an interrogative pronoun.

  • Which room do they live in? (informal)
  • In which room do they live? (formal)

Rule-2. 

The Preposition is often placed at the end when the object is a Relative pronoun.

  • She needs someone to whom she can talk. (formal)
  • She needs someone who she can talk to. (informal)

Rule-3. 

Sometimes the object is placed first for the sake of emphasis. 

  • There is no chair to sit on.
  • Shakespeare is known all the world over.

Objects of Prepositions

The noun or pronoun after the preposition is called its object. Preposition along with its object is called prepositional phrase. 

Sometimes, a phrase, or clause can be the the object to a preposition.

  • The noise comes from across the river.
  • I am thinking about how to inform him.
  • Listen to what I say.
  • There is no meaning in what you say.

Omission of Preposition  

Prepositions in, on, and at are often omitted before nouns of place or time:

This (This morning, this week, etc)

Last (Last night / last week)

Next (Next year, next Friday)

Every (every day/ every year)

Prepositions for is often omitted before nouns of place or time:

  • I’m too weak to walk a yard.
  • Wait a minute.

Omission of Object   

We often omit relative pronouns as the object to a Preposition.

  • This is the book I am looking for. [Here which is understood].
  • I’m a man more sinned against. [Here whom is understood.]

Preposition, or Adverb?   

Several words are used sometimes as Adverbs and sometimes as Prepositions. 
  • I could not come before(Adverb)
  • I could not come before the time. (Preposition)
  • Can I go in(Adverb)
  • Can I go in the room? (Preposition)
  • They are waiting outside the club. (preposition)
  • They are waiting outside. (adverb)

Prepositions or conjunctions?

Some words like after, as, before, since, and until  function as both prepositions and conjunctions. When a preposition is followed by a clause, it is functioning as a conjunction; when a preposition is followed by a noun phrase, it stays as a preposition

  • I’ll go home after the meeting. (preposition)
  • I’ll go home after I’ve attended the meeting. (conjunction)
  • We must wait until 10 pm. (preposition)
  • We must wait until the meeting ends. (conjunction)

Prepositional Phrase: 

Preposition along with its object is called Prepositional Phrase. Prepositional phrases show place, position, time, and method

Most prepositional phrases act as adverb.

  • Tigers live in the forest.
  • The train leaves from Mumbai

Some prepositional phrases act as adjective. 

  • The man with brown hair looks smart. 
  • The lion is the king of beasts

Select the correct answer

Q1. Airplanes fly-----the clouds.
over
above
below
between
Q2. The boy excelled-----English.
to
for
up
in
Q3. The boy is clever-----geometry.
to
at
on
for
Q4. He took advantages-----absence of me.
in
by
to
at
Q5. Russia is rich-----gas resources.
in
to
on
into
Q6. Don't laugh-----the poor.
to
by
at
of
Q7. He died-----cholera.
in
by
of
for
Q8. Maradona is known-----all.
through
to
by
with
Q9. Put your dress-----and go to school.
into
on
off
in
Q10. We should believe-----.
on
at
in
to
Q11. She is sitting-----the children.
among
around
by
for
Q12. The man was guilty-----theft.
of
to
after
none
Q13. He is looking-----his lost book.
on
for
at
none
Q14. He has no capacity-----doing this.
to
into
for
on
Q15. He is strong-----English.
to
in
at
on