Complex to Simple

A complex sentence has two clauses—one is the principal clause, and the other is the sub-ordinate clause. 

To change a complex sentence into simple, we turn the sub-ordinate clause into a phrase. Let us now see how we can do so.


1. Adverbial Clause of Reason

If a complex sentence has an adverbial clause of reason (a clause beginning with AS, SINCE, or BECAUSE),  we can turn it into simple by turning the subordinate clause into a participle phrase or because of + noun phrase.

 

Complex: They do not make their nests because they are lazy.

Simple: They do not make their nests because of their laziness.

Simple: They do not make their nests because of being lazy.

Simple: They do not make their nests for their laziness.

Simple: Being lazy, they do not make their nests. 

1. Transform the following complex sentences into simple. 

(a) He was famous because he was wise. 

(b) Since I forgot him, I went outside the cabin. 

(c) As he was honest, he did not show any excuse.

(d) Since he lost his father, he stopped going to school. 

(e) As the paws are cushioned, a big tiger can walk through the driest leaves without causing a single crackle. 


2. Adverbial Clause of Concession 

If the sub-ordinate clause begins with though/ although (adverbial clause of concession), we turn it into a phrase with the help of in spite of or despite.

Complex: Though they look black, they are adorable. 

Simple: In spite of looking black, they are adorable. 


2. Transform the following complex sentences into simple. 

(a) Though he was sick, he attended the meeting. 

(b) Although they worked hard, they could not prosper in life. 


3. Adjective Clause

If a sentence has a clause which begins with a relative pronoun, it is called adjective clause. If an adjective clause has Be Verb + Adjective structure in the predicate, we can make the predicative adjective into an attributive adjective. 


Complex: The people who are greedy are responsible for price hike.

Simple: The greedy people are responsible for price hike.


Complex: Marco Polo was a traveller who was very famous.

Simple: Marco Polo was a very famous traveller.


3. Transform the following complex sentences into simple. 

(a) Those who are honest lead a happy life.

(b) Gold is a metal which is very precious.

(c) The birds eat up the insects which are harmful to our crops.

(d) Mother women play a role which is important in moulding the character of their children.

(e) Drivers who are experienced should be given license.


4. Adjective Clause

If an adjective clause has any other verb except be in the predicate, we can change the predicate into a participle phrase. 


Complex: It is a telephone system that works without any wire.

Simple: It is a telephone system working without any wire.


Complex: The man who takes bribe is next to devil. 

Simple: The man taking bribe is next to devil.


4. Transform the following complex sentences into simple. 

(a) People who build houses must maintain the earthquake resistance building code.

(b) The man who knows English well can go abroad.

(c) In 1820s Babbage worked on his 'Difference Engine' a machine which could perform mathematical calculations.

(d) All that glitters is not gold.

(e) But education covers development of mind and taste which is done through study.


5. Adjective Clause

If an adjective clause has a predicate nominative, we can change the predicate nominative into an appositive. 

Complex: My elder sister who is an advocate lives in Dhaka. 

Simple: My elder sister, an advocate, lives in Dhaka. 


5. Transform the following complex sentences into simple. 

(a) My elder brother who is an engineer works in Dhaka.

(b) Adison who was a scientist invented electric bulb. 


6. Adjective Clause

If the main clause begins with It is + Noun, the noun becomes the subject of the simple sentence. 

Complex: It is study which is the first and foremost duty of a student.

Simple: Study is the first and foremost duty of a student.


Complex: It was Bob who broke the window. 

Simple: Bob broke the window. 


6. Transform the following complex sentences into simple. 

(a) It is corruption which hampers our development. 

(b) It was Lily who got the first prize.


7. Adjective Clause

If the main clause begins with It is + Noun, the noun becomes the subject of the simple sentence.  

Complex: There are many virtues that man should possess.

Simple: Man should possess many virtues.


7. Transform the following complex sentences into simple. 

(a) There is no living being that does not need pure air.

(b) There are many things that have been included in communication technology.

8. Adverbial Clause of Condition

If a conditional clause indicates positive meaning, we make it By + gerund.

If you take care of your health, you can enjoy a good life.

By taking care of your health, you can enjoy a good life.


If we read books, we can enrich our minds.

By reading books, we can enrich our minds.


8. Transform the following complex sentences into simple. 

(a) If a student fails in the examination, he suffers from inferiority complex.

(b) If we take proper care of it, we will be benefited.

(c) If teachers take care of their students, they can teach well.

(d) If we take some pragmatic steps, we can solve it.

(e) If the government come forward, their condition may improve.


9. Adverbial Clause of Condition

If a conditional clause indicates negative meaning, we make it Without + gerund.

Complex: If you do not read, you will not learn.

Simple: Without reading, you will not learn.


9. Transform the following complex sentences into simple. 

(a) If a student is not devoted to studies, he will not shine in life.

(b) If you do not cultivate the habit of speaking the truth, we cannot command the confidence of others.

(c) If we do not take proper steps, their condition will not improve.

(d) You cannot receive affection unless you give it.

(e) None can receive any reward unless he works hard.


10. Adverbial Clause of Purpose

Adverbial clause of purpose becomes infinitive phrase.

Complex: We should check drug addiction so that we can lead a healthy life.

Simple: We should check drug addiction to lead a healthy life.


Complex: The young people should find some ways so that they can be employed. 

Simple: The young people should find some ways to be employed. 


10. Transform the following complex sentences into simple. 

(a) Many people raise cows so that they can get milk.

(b) Effective step should be taken so that water pollution can be prevented.

(c) We should have a soft feeling for him so that he can live a decent life.

(d) A student should be aware of studying regularly and attentively so that he can do well in the examination.


10. Adverbial Clause of Time

Adverbial clause of time becomes a prepositional phrase.


Complex: When he was a boy, he desired to be an Englishman.

Simple: In his boyhood, he desired to be an Englishman.


Complex: She sits to read when it is time to read.

Simple: She sits to read at the time of reading.


10. Transform the following complex sentences into simple. 

(a) When we entered the restaurant, we were surprised.

(b) When they walk, they don’t make any sound. 

(c) When he was twelve years old, he performed well in literature.

(d) When all the passengers were in the door was closed.

(e) The wife of the house owner became happy when she heard it.


11. Adverbial Clause of Time

Before and after of the complex sentence becomes prepositions in the simple. 


Complex: I had arrived at the airport about an hour before the flight departed.

Simple: I had arrived at the airport about an hour before the flight’s departure.


Complex: After the plane had taken off, a hostess came to me.

Simple: After the plane having taken off, a hostess came to me.


11. Transform the following complex sentences into simple. 

(a) The doctor came after the patient had died. 

(b) We had washed our hands before we ate the tiffin. 


12. Adverbial Clause of Time

Why becomes the reason of.

Complex: An old frog wanted to know the reason why they were hurting them.

Simple: An old frog wanted to know the reason of their hurting them.


12. Transform the following complex sentences into simple. 

There are a good number of reasons why the students in Bangladesh fail in English.

The fisherman asked him why he had been locked up in the vase.