Complex to Compound

A complex sentence has one principal clause and one sub-ordinate clause. When you transform the complex sentence into compound, you just make the sub-ordinate clause a main clause. 

There are three conjunctions to form compound sentence—and, but & or. 

Conjunction in Complex Sentence Conjunction in Compound Sentence

Though/ Although -----but-----

If (not)/ Unless -----or-----

Other conjunctions -----and-----


1. THOUGH/ ALTHOUGH 

If the sub-ordinate clause of the complex sentence begins with THOUGH/ ALTHOUGH (Adverbial Clause of Concession), we use BUT to make it compound. 

Complex: Though they look black, they are adorable.

Compound: They look black but they are adorable.


Complex: Though he was a small boy, he would work like a man.

Compound: He was a small boy but he would work like a man.


1. Transform the following complex sentences into compound. 

(a) Though he sailed for India, he reached America.

(b) Though there are laws to punish the terrorists, they are not properly applied.

(c) Though its price is decreasing, per minute bill is not decreasing.

(d) Though they are coward, they are clever.

(e) Though we have strict law, we are still affected by this evil.

(f) Though he became blind at the age of 44, Milton could produce most beautiful writings.

(g) Though they are timid, they are clever.


2. IF/IF….NOT/UNLESS (Negative)

If the sub-ordinate clause of the complex sentence begins with IF NOT/ UNLESS (Adverbial Clause of Condition) and it conveys negative meaning, we use OR to make it compound. Note that the compound sentence becomes IMPERATIVE.

Complex: If you do not read, you will fail.

Compound: Read or you will fail.


Complex: If they do not come here, they will miss the chance.

Compound: They must come here or they will miss the chance.


2. Transform the following complex sentences into compound. 

(c) If we do not cultivate the habit of speaking the truth, we cannot command the confidence of others.

(d) No one can receive any reward unless he works hard.


For every other sub-ordinate clause, we use the conjunction AND. 


3. IF (Affirmative)

If the sub-ordinate clause of the complex sentence begins with IF (Adverbial Clause of Condition) and it conveys affirmative meaning, we use AND to make it compound. Note that the compound sentence becomes IMPERATIVE. 

Complex: If you read, you will learn.

Compound: Read and you will learn.


Complex: If you work hard, you will prosper in life.

Complex: Work hard and you will prosper in life.


3. Transform the following complex sentences into compound. 

(a) If you watch television, you can learn many things.

(b) If a student fails in the examination, he suffers from inferiority complex. 


4. AS/SINCE/BECAUSE

If the sub-ordinate clause of the complex sentence begins with AS/SINCE/BECAUSE (Adverbial Clause of Reason), we use AND to make it compound. 


4. Transform the following complex sentences into compound. 

(a) As the demand for flowers is increasing day by day, we should cultivate flower on commercial basis. (Simple)

(b) As they cultivate the good qualities in character, they will certainly lead the nation. (Simple) 

(c) They don't make their own nests because they are lazy. (Simple)

(d) As he was honest, everybody trusted him. (simple) 

(e) Many visitors buy books from this fair as they like. (Simple) 


5. SO+ADJECTIVE+THAT

If the sub-ordinate clause of the complex sentence begins with (so + adjective + ) THAT (Adverbial Clause of Result), we use VERY + ADJECTIVE + AND to make it compound. 


5. Transform the following complex sentences into compound. 

(a) He was so kind that he could not refuse anyone's request. (Make it a compound sentence)

(b) Literacy is so important that it is called the platform of education. (Compound)  

(c) Sometimes this jam is so acute that it blocks more than a kilometer of a street. (Compound)

(d) Sound pollution in Dhaka City is so high that life is becoming impossible here. (Compound)

(e) It was so far beyond my means that I had never thought of going there. (Compound)

(f) Be so kind that you can help me. (Compound).


6. RELATIVE PRONOUNS: Who/Which/That/What

If the sub-ordinate clause of the complex sentence begins with a  RELATIVE PRONOUN (Adjective Clause), we use AND to make it compound. 


6. Transform the following complex sentences into compound. 

(a) Suddenly they saw a bear which was coming towards them. (Make it simple sentence)

(b) The education that he learnt from this institution played better role in his life (Simple).

(c) The man who takes bribe is next to devil. (Simple)

(d) The people who are poor cannot afford to take a balanced diet. (simple)

(e) Gold is a metal which is very precious. (Simple)

(f) It is Dhaka city which has not yet suffered any severe earthquake. (simple)

(g) It is a telephone system that works without any wire. (Simple)

(h) There is no living being that does not need pure air. (simple)

(i) Is there anybody who does not want to succeed in life? (Simple)

(j) Its main source is the rain that builds streams, lake and rivers. (Make it a compound) 

(k) It is a great rational virtue that leads a man to the way of humanity. (Compound)


7. THAT as a Connector 

If the sub-ordinate clause of the complex sentence begins with  THAT (Noun Clause), we use AND to make it compound. 


7. Transform the following complex sentences into compound. 

(a) He never knew that the well-known writers in his days admired him greatly (compound).

(b) It is true that students will learn from their teachers. (compound)

(c) We hope that Bangladesh will be free from this evil. (Simple)


8. When/Why/Where/How

If the sub-ordinate clause of the complex sentence begins with  When/ Where/ Why/ How (Adverbial Clause), we use AND to make it compound. 


8. Transform the following complex sentences into compound. 

(a) When we read good books, we discover new worlds. (Make simple sentence)

(b) When he was eight years old, his mother died. (Simple)

(c) That night, while Ruplal was sleeping, he heard a noise. (Make simple sentence)

(d) When he was a boy, he desired to be an Englishman. (Make it a simple sentence)

(e) One night when he was saying his prayer, a thief broke into his room. (Make it a simple sentence)

(f) When I reached there, my friend received me cordially. (Simple)

(g) One night when he was saying his prayer, a thief broke into his room. (Simple)


9. AFTER/BEFORE

If the sub-ordinate clause of the complex sentence begins with  AFTER/BEFORE (Adverbial Clause), we use AND to make it compound. 


9. Transform the following complex sentences into compound. 

(a) I had arrived at the airport about an hour before the flight departed. (Make simple sentence)

(b) After the plane had taken off, a hostess came to me. (simple).