Simple to Complex

A simple sentence has only one clause. To make it complex, we keep the clause as principal clause and transform a phrase into a sub-ordinate clause. 

1. IN SPITE OF

If the simple sentence has a phrase beginning with IN SPITE OF, we turn it into an adverbial clause of concession (clause beginning with though/ although). 


  • Simple: In spite of taking utmost care, we cannot avoid indiscipline. 
  • Complex: Although we take utmost care, we cannot avoid indiscipline. 


1. Transform the following simple sentences into compound. 

(b) In spite of some disadvantages, the necessity of a mobile phone cannot be denied.

(c) In spite of being old, he carried a load of two baskets. 


2. BY+GERUND

If the simple sentence has a phrase beginning with BY + GERUND, we turn it into an adverbial clause of CONDITION (clause beginning with IF). 


  • Simple: By reading more, we can learn more.
  • Complex: If we read more, we can learn more.


2. Transform the following simple sentences into compound. 

(a) By applying the law properly, we can get rid of terrorism.

(b) We can build up developed society by reading books.


3. WITHOUT+GERUND

If the simple sentence has a phrase beginning with WITHOUT+GERUND, we turn it into an adverbial clause of CONDITION (clause beginning with though/ although). 


  • Simple: You cannot expect anything without working hard.
  • Complex: You cannot expect anything if you do not work hard.


3. Transform the following simple sentences into compound. 

(a) Without learning English, we cannot hope to get any good job.

(b) Without the uplift of women, the progress of the nation is not possible. 


4. TO+VERB (Purpose)

If the simple sentence has a phrase beginning with TO+VERB indicating Purpose, we turn it into an adverbial clause of PURPOSE (clause beginning with THAT/ SO THAT/ IN ORDER THAT). 


  • Simple: We should read books to enrich our minds.
  • Complex: We should read books so that we can enrich our minds.


  • Simple: Every year a lot of people come to visit it.
  • Complex: Every year a lot of people come so that they can visit it.


4. Transform the following simple sentences into compound. 

(a) They demand more price to gain more profit.

(b) We eat to satisfy our temptation.

(c) They came here to enjoy themselves. (Complex)

(d) Steps are needed to keep price hike under control.

(e) They should work hard to improve their condition. 


5. PRESENT PARTICIPLE/ PAST PARTICIPLE

If the simple sentence has a PARTICIPLE PHRASE, we turn it into a clause. 


  • Simple: Being a trusted person, he was highly respectable everywhere. 
  • Complex: As he was a trusted person, he was highly respectable everywhere. 


  • Simple: People pollute water by throwing waste into it. 
  • Complex: People pollute water as they throw waste into it. 


5. Transform the following simple sentences into compound. 

(a) People exposed to loud sound suffer from health hazard.

(b) Seeing Mushin, the thief cried.

(c) Realizing it we should be emotionally balanced. 

(d) Watching violent scenes young people become violent.

(e) Making caps he sold them to the market. 


6. Prepositional Phrase of TIME/PLACE

If the simple sentence has a phrase indicating time or place, we turn it into an adverbial clause of time or place. 


  • Simple: During his lifetime, he spent money lavishly to help the poor.
  • Complex: When he was alive, he spent money lavishly to help the poor.


  • Simple: He became a sailor in his boyhood.
  • Complex: He became a sailor when he was a boy.


6. Transform the following simple sentences into complex. 

(a) In winter birds come to our country from Syberia.

(b) He came to the orphanage at four.

(c) Mother Teressa set up Nirmal Hridoy in Kolkata.

(d) On the way he took shelter in a courtier's house.

(e) Saadi again took shelter in the same courtier's house. 


7. PREDICATIVE ADJECTIVE

If the simple sentence has an attributive adjective, we turn it into a predicate adjective and form an adjective clause. 


  • Simple: Some of your fake friends may hate you.
  • Complex: Some of your friends who are fake may hate you.


  • Simple: London is an old city.

  • Complex: London is a city which is old.


7. Transform the following simple sentences into compound. 

(a) You may have many good friends.

(b) The city dwellers are the worst victim.

(c) People in general are fond of glittering things.

(d) People in general are fond of glittering things.

(e) You may have many good friends.