TRANSFORMATION OF SENTENCES

Transformation is the process of changing the form of sentences without changing the meaning. If you learn the basic structure of simple, complex, and compound sentences, you will not need to memorise any rule to transform sentences.

Simple Sentence

A simple sentence has only one clause. That is, a simple sentence has only one subject and one finite verb. The following sentences are simple.  

Ankhi is a brilliant student. She reads in class 7. She never neglects her lessons. She wants to become a doctor. Being a doctor, she will serve her country. 


The following table divides the various parts of the above sentences. 

Subject
Finite Verb
Object / Extension
Ankhi
is
a brilliant student.
She
reads
in class 7.
She
never neglects
her lessons.
She
wants
to become a doctor.
Being a doctor, she
will serve
her country.


Complex Sentence

A complex sentence has one main clause and one or more sub-ordinate clauses joined with a sub-ordinate conjunction. The following sentences are complex.


Do you know that Bangladesh is a small country? It is the place where we were born. This is why it is our mother land. I love the country because it is beautiful. You will also like it when you will see it.


The following table divides the clauses of the above sentences.

Principal Clause
Conjunction
Subordinate Clause
Do you know
that
Bangladesh is a small country?
It is the place
where
we were born.
This is
why
it is our mother land.
I love the country
because
it is beautiful.
You will also like it
when
you will see it.


Compound Sentence

Compound sentences have two independent clauses which are joined with the coordinating conjunctions and, but, or. The following table divides the clauses of the above sentences.

Co-ordinate Clause
Conjunction
Co-ordinate Clause
He is poor
but
he is happy.
He is rich
but
dishonest.
She opened the door
and
went out.
I paid the bill
and
took the goods.
Read attentively
or
you will fail.
Keep silent
or
get out.


There are three types of sentences that are asked to transform from simple, complex, and compound. They are (i) BUT family, (ii) AND family, and (iii) OR family. Now, let us learn them. 


Transformation of Sentences

BUT Family

General Rules

  1. The conjunction BUT joins two sentences with two contrasted ideas. Sentences joined with BUT are compound sentences
  2. To make such sentences complex, we join the two clauses with THOUGH/ ALTHOUGH
  3. To make the sentence simple, the sub-ordinate clause, or the clause before BUT is turned into a phrase with the help of the phrase IN SPITE OF


The following table will help you remember the rules.

Sentence Type
Connector
Grammar Explanation
Compound
but
Two clauses are joined with BUT
Complex
though/ although
Two clauses are joined with THOUGH/ ALTHOUGH
Simple
In spite of/ despite
Sub-ordinate clause is turned into a phrase and joined with IN SPITE OF / DESPITE


    Examples
    Compound: He is poor but happy.
    Complex: Though he is poor, he is happy.
    Simple: In spite of his being poor*, he is happy.
    Or, In spite of his poverty*, he is happy.


    Compound: Many people work hard but cannot prosper in life.
    Complex: Although many people work hard, they cannot prosper in life.
    Simple: In spite of working hard, many people cannot prosper in life.


    Compound: I invited him but he did not come.
    ComplexThough I invited himhe did not come.
    Simple: In spite of my invitation, he did not come.

    Change the following sentences as directed in brackets.

    (a) Though they look black, they are adorable. (Compound)

    (b) Though he sailed for India, he reached America. (Compound)

    (c) Life of a man is not very peaceful but honesty can open a door of peace before him. (Complex)

    (d) A truthful person may lead a poor life but is honored everywhere. (Simple)

    (e) In spite of some disadvantages, the necessity of a mobile phone cannot be denied. (Complex)

    (f) He can't earn well in spite of working hard. (Compound)



     OR Family


      Conjunction in  CompoundConjunction in  ComplexSimple
      orif not/ unlesswithout + gerund

      We use or to show a choice between two options or alternatives. So, if a sentence has two clauses where one clause is the option or alternative of another, we use the conjunction OR to make it compound

      In order to make such sentences complex, we use IF (not)/ UNLESS

      It is made simple by transforming the sub-ordinate clause into a phrase. Sometimes we have to use WITHOUT + GERUND phrase of the if-clause.

      Compound: Take rest or you will become sick.
      ComplexIf you do not take rest, you will become sick.
      SimpleWithout taking rest, you will become sick.
      SimpleIn case of your failure to take rest, you will become sick.
      Compound: Move or die.
      ComplexIf you do not move, you will die.
      SimpleWithout moving, you will die.
      SimpleIn case of your failure to move, you will die.

      AND Family

      Adverbial Clause of Reason

      Conjunction in  CompoundConjunction in  ComplexSinple
      andas/ since/ becausebecause of/ for/ ?
      • If a sentence has two clauses where one idea is the cause and the other is the result, we use the conjunction AND to make it compound. 
      • To make such sentences complex, we use AS/ SINCE/ BECAUSE
      • It is made simple by transforming the sub-ordinate clause into a phrase. Sometimes we have to use BECAUSE OF or FOR to make the meaning clear. 


      Compound: He stood first and got a prize.
      Complex: As he stood first, he got a prize. 
      He got a prize because he stood first.
      Simple: Because of his standing first, he got a prize. 
      Standing first, he got a prize.
      Compound: The boy told lies and the teacher punished him.
      Complex: Since the boy told lies, the teacher punished him. 
      The teacher punished the boy because he told lies.
      Simple: Because of the boy’s telling lies, the teacher punished him. 
      The teacher punished the boy for telling lies.

      Change the following sentences as directed in brackets.

      (a) He was a free will agent and chose to do careful work. (Complex)

      (b) Everybody trusted him for his honesty. (Complex)  

      (c) As they cultivate the good qualities in character, they will certainly lead the nation. (Compound) 

      (d) They don't make their own nests because of lazyness. (Compound)

      (e) There he came in contact with many people and learnt many things about them. (Simple)

      (f) Since they fade soon, they lose their beauty. (Simple) 


      Adjective Clause

      Conjunction in  CompoundConjunction in  ComplexSimple
      andwho/ which/ thatpresent participle (V-ing)


      • If a sentence has two clauses where one clause describes the noun or pronoun of another clause (i.e. adjective clause), we use the conjunction AND to make it compound. 
      • In order to make such sentences complex, we use ADJECTIVE CLAUSE PRONOUNS (WHO, WHICH, THAT, etc). 
      • It is made simple by transforming the sub-ordinate clause into a phrase.  
      Compound:  Many people are farmers and they live in villages.
      Complex: Many people who are farmers live in villages.
      Simple: Being farmers, many people live in villages./Farmers live in villages.
      Simple: Dhaka is a big city.
      Complex: Dhaka is a city which is big.
      Compound: Dhaka is a city and it is big.
      Simple: Nobin is a wise man.
      Complex: Nobin is a man who is wise.
      Compound: Nobin is a man and he is wise.

      (a) Suddenly they saw a bear which was coming towards them. (Compound)

      (b) The education learnt from this institution played better role in his life (Compound).

      (c) The man who takes bribe is next to devil. (Simple)

      (d) Many people are poor and cannot afford to take a balanced diet. (SImple)

      (e) It is a telephone system working without any wire. (Complex)

      (f) Students will learn from their teachers and it is true. (Complex)



      Rule—4: AND

      Conjunction in  CompoundConjunction in  ComplexSimple
      andwhenv-ing


      • If a sentence has two clauses where one action follows another in the chronological order, we use the conjunction AND to make it compound. 
      • To make such sentences complex, we use WHEN
      • It is made simple by transforming the sub-ordinate clause into a phrase.  
      Compound: He received the parcel and paid the bill.
      Complex: When he received the parcel, he paid the bill.
      Simple: Receiving the parcel, he paid the bill.

      Change the sentences as directed in brackets. 

      (a) When we read good books, we discover new worlds. (Compound)

      (b) That night, while sleeping, he heard a noise. (Compound)

      (c) From his boyhood, he desired to be an Englishman. (Complex)

      (d) Father came home and gave me an ice-cream. (Complex)

      (e) When I reached there, my friend received me cordially. (Simple)

      (f) One night he was saying his prayer and a thief broke into his room. (Simple)


      Rule—5: AND

      Conjunction in CompoundConjunction in  ComplexSimple
      andwhen/ whereprepositional phrase of time or place


      • If a sentence has two clauses where one clause denotes time or place, we use the conjunction AND to make it compound. 
      • In order to make such sentences complex, we use WHEN or WHERE
      • It is made simple by transforming the sub-ordinate clause into a phrase.  


      Compound:  It was night and I was sleeping.
      Complex: It was night when I was sleeping.
      Simple: At night I was sleeping.
      Compound:  It is house and people live here.
      Complex: It is house where people live.
      Simple: People live in house.


      Change the sentences as directed in brackets.

      (a) Long time ago, there lived a young man called Ruplal. (Compound)

      (b) I decided to go there when it was summer vacation. (Compound)

      (c) Long time ago, two friends were passing by a forest. (Complex)

      (d) He was born at Cumberland and it was on April 4, 1770. (Complex).

      (e) He became a sailor when he was a boy. (Simple)

      (f) When it is winter, birds come to our country from Syberia. (Simple)



      Rule—6: AND

      Conjunction in Compound
      Conjunction in Complex
      Simple
      andso thatto + verb


      • If a sentence has two clauses where one indicates the purpose of another, we use the conjunction AND to make it compound. 
      • In order to make such sentences complex, we use SO THAT
      • It is made simple by transforming the sub-ordinate clause into an INFINITIVE phrase. 


      Simple: They come here to enjoy themselves.
      Complex: They come here so that they enjoy themselves.
      Compound: They come here and enjoy themselves.
      Simple: We should read books to gain knowledge.
      Complex: We should read books so that we can gain knowledge.
      Compound: We should read books and gain knowledge.

      Change the sentences as directed in brackets. 

      (a) We should read books to acquire knowledge. (Compound)

      (b) He wants that his students be good citizens. (Compound)

      (c) We need flowers to decorate a place. (Complex)

      (d) During his lifetime he spent money lavishly and helped the poor. (Complex)

      (e) Every year a lot of people come and visit Cox's Bazar. (Simple)

      (f) So we should be aware so that we can prevent air pollution. (Complex) 


      Rule—7: AND

      • If the compound sentence has the pattern:  very + Adjective + and + clause
      • the complex sentence will be: so + Adjective + that + clause
      • the simple sentence will be: too + Adjective + to + verb


      Simple: He is too weak to walk to school.
      Complex: He is so weak that he cannot walk to school.
      Compound: He is very weak and cannot walk to school.
      Simple: The tea was too hot to drink.
      Complex  : The tea was so hot that I could not drink it.
      Compound : The tea was very hot and I could not drink it.

      Change the sentences as directed in brackets. 

      (a) He was too kind to refuse anyone's request. (Compound)

      (b) Literacy is so important that it is called the platform of education. (Compound)  

      (d) Sound pollution in the city is too high for life to become impossible here. (Complex)

      (e) It was very far beyond my means and I had never thought of going there. (Complex)

      (f) Be so kind that you can help me. (Simple).

      (g) I was very young and could not say 'no' to a woman. (Simple)



      Rule—8: If / If not/ Unless

      • If a sentence has two clauses where one idea is the condition of another, we use the conjunction AND to make it compound. 
      • To make such sentences complex, we use IF. If the if-clause is negative, we use UNLESS or IF NOT
      • It is made simple by transforming the sub-ordinate clause into a BY + GERUND phrase when the if-clause is affirmative. But when the conditional clause is negative, we use WITHOUT + GERUND.  
      Compound: We can read books and enrich our minds.
      Complex: If we read books, we can enrich our minds. 
      Simple: By reading books we can enrich our minds. 
      Compound: Read books or you cannot pass. 
      Complex: Unless you read books, you cannot pass. 
      Simple: Without reading books, you cannot pass. 

      Change the sentences as directed in brackets. 

      (a) If you watch television, you can learn many things. (Compound)

      (b) If a student fails in the examination, he suffers from inferiority complex. (Compound)

      (c) If we cultivate the habit of speaking the truth, we can command the confidence of others. (Simple)

      (d) One can receive reward if he works hard. (Simple)


      Rule—9:

      • Some sentences have unique structures. You need to be tricky to transform them. In the following sentences-----

      Using the pattern: It is-----which

      Simple: Unity is strength. 
      Complex: It is unity which is strength. 


      Using What

      Simple: I do not know his name. 
      Complex: I do not know what his name is. 
      Simple: Tell me the truth. 
      Complex: Tell me what the truth is. 


      Using Named / Called

      Simple: Once there was a king named Lear. 
      Complex: Once there was a king whose name was Lear.

      Transform the sentences as directed in brackets.

      (a) I had arrived at the airport about an hour before the flight departed. (Simple)

      (b) After the plane had taken off, a hostess came to me. (Compound).

      (c) He goes to class after taking preparation. (Compound)

      (d) People living in the high land can escape flood. (complex)

      (e) The students studying regularly can expect a good result. (Complex)

      (f) A corrupted man can do anything against morality. (Complex)

      (g) An industrious man will shine in life. (Complex)